What Is an FPGA?

What Is an FPGA?

The Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), invented by Xilinx (now AMD), is a type of integrated circuit that can be configured by the user after manufacturing to perform a variety of digital functions. They are popular in a wide range of industries, from telecommunications to aerospace, due to their flexibility and high performance.

FPGAs are made up of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) and programmable interconnects that allow the user to design custom digital circuits. The CLBs contain logic gates, flip-flops, and other basic digital building blocks, while the programmable interconnects allow the user to route signals between the CLBs and other components on the FPGA.

What Are the Advantages of Using an FPGA?

One of the biggest advantages of FPGAs is their flexibility. They can be reprogrammed to perform different functions as needed, making them ideal for applications where the requirements may change over time. This can save time and money, as it eliminates the need to design and manufacture new hardware for each new application.

For example, let’s say you’ve programmed a satellite and sent it into orbit. But now you need to alter the programming – while still in orbit. FPGAs allow you to do that.

In addition, FPGAs are also known for their high performance. They can perform complex digital signal processing (DSP) tasks, such as image and video processing, at high speeds. They are also well suited for tasks that require parallel processing, such as encryption and decoding.

FPGAs support multiple input/output (I/O) electrical standards, including high-speed I/O transceivers. This provides the ability to input and output data at extremely high speeds across extremely narrow serial links. It also provides wide data interfaces used for numerous data memory industry standards.

How Are FPGAs Used?

FPGAs are used in a wide range of applications due to their flexibility, parallel processing capabilities, and ability to accelerate specific tasks in hardware. Here are some common uses of FPGAs:

Digital Signal Processing (DSP):

FPGAs handle real-time signal processing tasks, such as audio and video processing, radar, sonar, and communications systems. The parallel processing capabilities of FPGAs allow for efficient implementation of DSP algorithms.

Hardware Acceleration:

FPGAs are used to accelerate specific functions or algorithms in hardware, providing significant speedups compared to software implementations running on traditional CPUs. This is particularly valuable in applications like artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) inference, where custom hardware accelerators can greatly improve performance.

Embedded Systems:

FPGAs are integrated into embedded systems to handle custom I/O interfaces, control logic, and specialized hardware requirements. This is common in industrial automation, robotics, automotive electronics, and aerospace systems.


FPGAs are used in network equipment, such as routers, switches, and network interface cards (NICs), to handle packet processing, protocol offloading, and encryption/decryption tasks. FPGAs can help increase the throughput and efficiency of networking devices.


FPGAs are employed for cryptographic operations, including encryption, decryption, and secure key management. Hardware-based cryptography on FPGAs can improve security and performance in data protection applications.

High-Performance Computing (HPC):

FPGAs can be used as co-processors in high-performance computing environments to accelerate specific compute-intensive tasks, such as scientific simulations and data analysis.

Medical Imaging:

FPGAs are used in medical imaging devices (e.g., MRI, CT, ultrasound) to process and manipulate image data in real time, enhancing the speed and accuracy of diagnostics.

Aerospace and Defense:

FPGAs are utilized in avionics, defense systems, and space applications for custom logic implementation, sensor interfacing, and real-time data processing.

Prototyping and Rapid Development:

FPGAs are valuable for rapid prototyping of digital systems, enabling designers to test and iterate on hardware designs before finalizing custom ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) implementations.

Emerging Technologies:

FPGAs continue to find new applications in emerging fields such as edge computing, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and 5G technology.

In essence, FPGAs are used wherever there is a need for hardware customization, parallel processing, low latency, or high-performance acceleration. The ability to reconfigure the FPGA to suit specific tasks makes them a versatile solution for various industries and applications.

How Are FPGAs Different From Other Computer Chips?

FPGAs differ significantly from other common computer chips, such as CPUs (Central Processing Units), GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) and ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits). Here are some key differences:


FPGAs are designed to be highly flexible and reconfigurable. Unlike CPUs and GPUs, which have fixed architectures for specific tasks, FPGAs can be reprogrammed to perform a wide range of tasks, making them ideal for applications that require customization and adaptability.

Parallel Processing:

FPGAs excel at parallel processing. They consist of an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) and programmable interconnects, allowing multiple operations to be performed simultaneously. This parallelism is beneficial for tasks like signal processing, cryptography, and data-intensive computations.

Custom Hardware Acceleration:

FPGAs are often used to accelerate specific tasks in hardware. This is particularly useful for applications that can benefit from dedicated hardware, such as AI/ML inference, cryptographic operations, and real-time data processing. By creating custom hardware accelerators on an FPGA, you can achieve significant performance gains compared to general-purpose CPUs.

Power Efficiency:

In certain scenarios, FPGAs can be more power-efficient than traditional CPUs or GPUs. Because FPGAs can be programmed to implement only the necessary logic for a specific task, they can reduce power consumption by avoiding the overhead associated with running general-purpose software.

Design Time:

While FPGAs offer flexibility, they also require more specialized design skills to program effectively. Designing and optimizing FPGA-based solutions can be more complex and time-consuming compared to writing software for traditional processors. However, the performance gains can justify the effort, especially for specific use cases. (Learn how BLT can help reduce your design time.)


FPGAs can provide lower latency for certain tasks because they operate in hardware, which can lead to faster response times compared to software-based solutions running on CPUs or even GPUs.

It’s important to note that FPGAs are not a replacement for general-purpose CPUs or GPUs in all scenarios. They excel in specific applications where customization, parallelism, and hardware acceleration are crucial. The choice of chip depends on the specific requirements of the task at hand.

In Conclusion

FPGAs are a powerful and flexible technology that offers many advantages over other devices for certain situations. Their reprogrammable nature and high performance make them ideal for a wide range of applications.

what is an fpga